Summary table of the main questions that will be examined during the miscellaneous sessions

  • 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: implications for the Convention
  • Monitoring of directive frameworks and themed questions (migrations, gender, drought, sand and dust storms, land tenure)
  • Securing of additional investment and relations with financial mechanisms
  • Scientific knowledge and decision-making: CST report and recommendations
  • High-level/ministerial round tables
  • Participation of CSO and the private sector in the UNCCD meetings and processes     Read more

Organizational chart of the Convention

The organization chart presents the various bodies and entities associated with the implementation of the Convention.

Key milestones in the implementation of the Convention

The next timeline reflects the events that have marked the implementation of the UNCCD since its signature.


Minutes of COP 13

COP13, held in Ordos, China in September 2017, welcomed 1,200 delegates[1]and adopted 36 decisions[2]. The Science and Technology Committee (CST) and the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC), the two subsidiary bodies of the Convention, met at the same time. The following sections summarise the main points discussed during these meetings

[1] ISDD, Earth Negotiations Bulletin, COP 13 Summary, online: Read more

[2] Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session held in Ordos (China) from 6 to 16 September 2017, Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its thirteenth session, online: Read more

Strategic Framework for the 2018-2030 Convention

The salient point of COP13 was the adoption of the UNCCD Strategic Framework (2018-2030)[1], which follows the 10-year Strategic Framework Plan to strengthen the implementation of the Convention (2008-2018). Its content was determined taking into account other international work, notably at the Rio + 20 Summit, and is particularly aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. on financing for development.

The general purpose of the Framework is to avoid, minimise and reverse desertification and land degradation, mitigate the effects of drought and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world. It targets five strategic objectives, clarified in each case by a list of actions for their implementation and the expected impacts. The table below compares the strategic objectives of both the new and the previous frameworks.

[1] Decision 7/COP.13, online : Read more

Comparative of the strategic frameworks 2008-2018 and 2018-2030

Objectifs Plan-cadre stratégique 2008-2018

Objectifs Cadre stratégique 2018-2030


To improve the condition of affected ecosystems.


To improve the condition of affected ecosystems, combat desertification/land degradation, promote sustainable land management and encourage land degradation neutrality


To improve the living conditions of affected populations


To improve the living conditions of affected populations



To mitigate, adapt to and manage the effects of drought in order to enhance resilience of vulnerable populations and ecosystems


To generate global benefits through effective implementation of the UNCCD


To generate global environmental benefits through effective implementation of the UNCCD


To mobilise resources to support implementation of the Convention through building effective partnerships between national and international actors


To mobilise significant and additional financial and non-financial resources to support the implementation of the Convention by building effective partnerships at global and national level

Strategic objectives

They will guide the work of all stakeholders and partners under the Convention in the period 2018-2030. The achievement of these objectives will contribute to the achievement of the overall vision of the Strategic Framework of the Convention. The following table details the expected effects for each of the objectives.

The Strategic Framework provides for reporting by Parties on the objectives, and indicators of progress for each of the goals, as well as the achievement of SDG 17 on the revitalization of the global partnership for sustainable development, in particularly in the areas of technology and capacity building. Read more plus…

Strategic objectives and expected impacts

Strategic objective 1: To improve the condition of affected ecosystems, combat desertification/land degradation, promote sustainable land management and encourage land degradation neutrality

Expected impact 1.1


Land productivity and related ecosystems services are maintained or enhanced.

Expected impact 1.2


The vulnerability of affected ecosystems is reduced and the resilience of ecosystems is increased

Expected impact 1.3

National voluntary land degradation neutrality targets are set and adopted by countries wishing to do so, related measures are identified and implemented and necessary monitoring systems are established

Expected impact 1.4

Measures for sustainable land management and the combating of desertification/land degradation are shared, promoted and implemented


SDG 15 and land degradation neutrality

In 2015, the international community, under the auspices of the United Nations, adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, comprising 17 objectives. Target 15 (SDG 15), and in particular target 15.3, is to combat desertification, restore degraded lands and soils, including lands affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a neutral world in land degradation.

The objective of NDT is to maintain and increase the amount of healthy and productive land resources over time. The NDT aims to move from the vicious circle of "degrading / abandoning / migrating" to the virtuous one of "protecting / preserving / restoring" and providing immediate and cumulative benefits to society.[1].

[] Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its thirteenth session, online: More

[] See generally the decisions adopted by the Parties, online: Read more

; and IISD, Summary of COP13, p. 17.

[] ISDD, COP 13 Summary, p. 17.

[] ISDD, COP 13 Summary, p. 17. To consult the publication: Read more.

[] ISDD, COP 13 Summary, p. 17.

On the NDT, see Global Territorial Outlook (GLO), p. 310, online: Read more

Elements for the incorporation of Sustainable Development Goal 15 and Target 15.3 as part of the Convention’s application

 The NDT presents an opportunity for the UNCCD to demonstrate the global aspect of desertification and drought issues through their links to poverty alleviation, food security, security of water supply, as well as mitigation and adaptation to climate change and biodiversity[1]. This is an important way to promote its implementation. As a result, the NDT was placed at the heart of the new 2018-2030 Strategic Framework, in its objective # 1. That said, the UNCCD's work on the concept had already begun in 2013 and progressed significantly, as shown in the table below. Read more

Results of PSI's work under Objective 1 of its 2018-2019 action plan

Objective 1: Provide accurate data to reach the NDT (ICCD / CST (14) / 2)



Actions / Results Provided

To remember

Objective 1.1. Advise on the design and implementation of NTD policies and initiatives with multiple environmental and development benefits as well as synergies with other Rio Conventions, in particular, for climate change measures. adaptation and mitigation of CC

Technical report no. 1

Realizing the carbon benefits of sustainable soil management practices: Guidelines for estimating soil organic carbon in the context of NDT planning and monitoring

Guides for:

§ Identification of appropriate SLM practices and approaches for maintaining and storing carbon in soils

§ Carbon stock assessment for planning and monitoring national targets

Objective 1.2. Provide science-based evidence on how NDT could contribute to improving the well-being and livelihood and environmental status of affected populations

Technical report no. 2

Create an enabling environment for NDT and its potential contribution to improving well-being, livelihoods and the environment

A conceptual framework to assist countries in their efforts to create an enabling environment for NTD and achieving multiple benefits.

The enabling environment includes appropriate and inclusive policies and regulations, committed institutions, access to finance and an effective science-policy interface.


The UNCCD Strategic Framework 2018-2030 recognises that desertification, land degradation and drought are global problems and help to create – and aggravate – economic, social and environmental problems, including forced migration[1].

[1] UNCCD Strategic Framework 2018-2030 - Paragraph no. 1.

Gender - gender equality

The UNCCD Gender Action Plan (see the figure below) was established in application of Decision 30/COP.13 to support the implementation of the Convention’s Strategic Framework (2018-2030) and to enhance the implementation of the policy framework for the advocacy activities relating to gender equality (Decision 9/ COP.10)[1].

[1] For more information on the Gender Equality Action Plan, 2018, online: Read more.


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) believes that droughts are likely to intensify throughout the 21st century. Climate change risks altering their cycles and increasing the frequency and severity of extreme droughts (and floods). Drought causes serious water shortages, economic losses, environmental degradations and social consequences such as migrations, poverty and instability. It magnifies the tensions and competition between the various uses for water. The number of people likely to migrate due to desertification and drought could reach 135 million by 2050.

Tempêtes de sable et de poussière

Populations in many regions have long been exposed to the risk of sand and dust storms, raising concerns for the environment, the economy and society. There is growing concern due to the recent increases in frequency and intensity of these phenomena and possible future increases as a result of land use changes in source areas and climate change.

Sand and dust storms are mainly caused by desertification, land degradation and climate change, especially from unsustainable land and water use, more extreme winds, greater aridity in some regions and greater drought frequency, severity and duration. Droughts, typically associated with vegetation decline and drier soils, frequently result in greater sand and dust storm activity. The sparse vegetation cover, in combination with dry and friable soils and sediments, creates conditions conducive to these phenomena. The relative significance globally of natural sources versus those where land use and management practices have increased the occurrence of wind erosion is not clear, but the distinction is important. [1]. LDN can be an effective, pragmatic starting point to identify and implement restoration or preservation practices and to consider the sensitive approach to the gender problem recommended by the Gender Action Plan under the Convention. Furthermore, enhanced cooperation is necessary given that sand and dust storms are essentially a transboundary problem.

A policy framework for sand and dust storms was established by the UNCCD in 2013 [2]. Its goal is to reduce the vulnerability of society to this recurring risk by mitigating the effects of erosion by wind and sand and dust storms. It advocates focusing on three areas: (i) post-crisis management (emergency response procedures); (ii) pre-crisis governance to build resilience, reduce vulnerability and minimize effects (mitigation); (iii) preparation plans and policies.

[1] ICCD/COP(13)/19 ;- Read more ;- pp.14-20Policy Framework for Sandstorms and Dust Storms;- pp.14-20


Priority areas of the policy framework for advocacy activities related to sand and dust storms (based on ICCD / COP (13) / 19)

Salient points to be raised during meetings 


The establishment of a mechanism to integrate and strengthen the efforts of the Parties, to stimulate cooperation and improve the management of these phenomena at the source.


The development and implementation at the national, regional and global levels of relevant risk reduction policies incorporating gender issues.


The development and implementation at the national, regional and global levels of relevant risk reduction policies incorporating gender issues.

Land tenure

The land tenure issue is newly incorporated into the COP discussions. FAO defines land tenure [1] as the relationship, defined by law or custom, between individuals or groups in relation to land. It is a set of rules that defines the division of land ownership rights, the terms and conditions for the allocation of rights of use, control and transfer of land and the corresponding responsibilities and limitations.

Decision 7 / COP.13, "The Future Strategic Framework for the Convention", takes note of the Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Land, Fisheries and Forests Regimes in the Context of National Food Security set out by the FAO (VGGT) [2], and recognizes its potential contribution to the effective implementation of the Strategic Framework of the 2018-2030 Convention. In addition, the scientific conceptual framework for NDT [3], endorsed in decision 18 / COP.13, recommends the adoption of VGGTs.

There are many causal links between tenure security and land degradation. Tenure security tends to favor conservation and sustainable management. Indeed, it makes the owners sufficiently confident and motivated to adopt resource conservation practices with medium and long-term profitability prospects. On the contrary, those who do not enjoy the same security of land rights do not have the same motivation to invest, and often degrade the land for fear that it will be taken away from them: they try to make the most of it short-term benefits. The resulting degradation and consequent productivity reduction leads to additional land clearing and exploitation to meet basic food needs and other household needs, often encroaching on marginal lands.

[1] Land tenure studies;

[2] Read more

[3] [1] Document ICCD / COP (13) / CST / 2.

Salient points to be raised during meetings 


The means to create an environment conducive to responsible land governance which include: recognition of customary law, equal access to the land men and women, the use of ICT for registration of land rights, recognition and implementation of dispute resolution institutions.


The use of principles of VGGT, particularly in spatial planning processes, in the implementation of NDT activities and in the definition of NDT targets.

Mobilization of investments and financial mechanisms

Document ICCD / CRIC (18) / 7 reports on the actions of the GM during the last two years and recommendations for further action. The activities carried out and the conclusions / recommendations of the GM for their continuation are detailed in the table below.

Activities of the Global Mechanism

Document ICCD / CRIC (18) / 7 reports on the activities of the GM regarding the mobilization of resources for the implementation of the Convention. The following table presents this review and the conclusions and recommendations of the GM in relation to 1) the establishment of enabling environments; 2) access to existing financing and 3) new financing and innovative projects:

NDT Fund

Following decision 3 / COP.12, the GM joined the governments of France, Luxembourg and Norway, as well as the Rockefeller Foundation in its efforts to develop and operationalize the NDT. These partners also supported the initial structuring and legal basis of the Fund, as well as the private sector fund manager's research and selection process. Read more…

Mid-Term Review of the Strategic Framework of the Convention (2018-2030)

The UNCCD adopted at COP 13 the Strategic Framework for the Convention (2018-2030) (decision 7 / COP.13). COP 13 also decided that its Bureau should develop the modalities, criteria and terms of reference for the mid-term review of this Strategic Framework in order to propose them for adoption at COP 14 (decision 13 / COP.13). The assessment will take place in 2024-2025, and preparations will be completed for COP 16 (in 2023).

The purpose of this mid-term evaluation is to review the implementation of the five strategic objectives of the Framework (for further details on the Strategic Framework, see section 2.2 of this Summary, or the corresponding section of the Guide) , to identify the obstacles, the key actors, the approaches which will have proved fruitful, and thus to formulate and communicate recommendations for the second part of the journey. The evaluation will focus on four interrelated elements:

  1. a) The continuing relevance of the Strategic Framework;
  2. (b) Progress made towards achieving the five strategic objectives;
  3. (c) Efforts made towards the goals and responsibilities set out in the implementation framework;
  4. (d) The effectiveness of the reporting and review process for the Strategic Framework (2018-2030).

It should be noted that the evaluation will consider the consideration of gender-sensitive policies and measures in the implementation of the Strategic Framework and in the reporting and review process.

An intergovernmental working group, to be nominated by the Conference of the Parties on the proposal of the different regional groups, will carry out the evaluation with the support of the secretariat. The stages of the evaluation will be as follows:

  • An evaluation conducted by an independent expert under the supervision of the working group. Its results, based on reliable and verified data and an objective analysis, will be presented in a report that will contain provisional conclusions and recommendations. The data will come from the national reports submitted by the Parties.
  • The independent evaluation will be the subject of a participatory consultation process at one of the CRIC intersessional meetings.
  • The evaluation will conclude with a decision of the COP at the session following the CRIC meeting.

High level segment

In collaboration with UNEP and WMO and with the support of Science- Policy Interface experts, the Secretariat has been developing a global sand and dust storm base map to meet this need and provide an initial data set at global level.

Land, climate and renewable energies

Land management remains an underutilized means of fighting climate change. Yet investments in land management are beneficial in many ways. Read more….

Rural and urban communities: failing or prospering together

Land management is strongly linked to issues of residential areas, healthy housing, and access to water and food. Rural and urban areas each have their own issues and connected issues, and the significant displacement of populations from rural areas to urban areas that we are currently witnessing around the world also generates many challenges, as explained in the paper. infographic next. The global trend is to increase population, and this increase is greater in cities than in rural areas. Read more…

Promoting a global movement for ecosystem restoration

This roundtable connects the work of the UNCCD with that of other institutions working on land restoration in a wider movement of sustainable development. The IPCC will present at this round table the results of a report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security and GHG fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Read more…

An axiological approach to responsible land management

Faced with the overexploitation that the land is undergoing is emerging an ethical movement of land management. Its actors have variable starting points, but seem to gather around the desire to change the patterns of production and consumption, through different approaches, both in relation to their careers and their lifestyles. This change in values ​​is mainly attributed to the challenge of climate change, to which the younger generation is particularly sensitive. It is therefore this younger generation that is driving change.

Program and budget

This section provides an overview of the information provided by the secretariat on program and budget issues. More details can be found in the corresponding section of the Guide.

Document ICCD/COP(14)/12 prepared by the Secretariat summarises the conclusions of the latest report from the Evaluation Office[1]. The document also monitors previous evaluations, by reviewing the actions undertaken for the implementation of the recommendations they contain.

[1] ICCD / COP (14) / 12 - Report of the Evaluation Office. Note by the secretariat.

United Nations rules and regulations governing program planning, program-related aspects of the budget, monitoring of performance and evaluation methods. Document ST / SGB / 2016/6; please also see the previous version: ST / SGB / 2000/8.

Participation and involvement of CSO in UNCCD meetings and processes

The issue of involvement of civil society organizations (CSOs) in the implementation of the Convention and their participation in official UNCCD meetings began to be directly addressed by the COP in 2009. The decision 5 / COP.9 created the OSC Panel to coordinate the involvement of accredited CSOs in the COP. It is composed of five members, each representing one of the five regional groups of the United Nations. COP 10 had requested that COP 13 undertake an assessment of the revised accreditation procedures based on the involvement of CSOs. COP 13 endorsed the findings of the independent review conducted for this purpose, and requested that a report on their implementation be made by the secretariat for COP 14. Read more ...

Participation and involvement of the private sector in the UNCDD meetings and processes and the business engagement strategy

The involvement of the private sector in the UNCCD activities has been encouraged and enhanced by Decisions 5/COP.11, 6/COP.12 and 6/COP.13. The Parties requested the Secretariat to establish a Business Engagement Strategy (BES), which was presented to the Parties at COP12. It has since governed the relations between UNCCD and private businesses. In its note ICCD/COP(14)/14[1], the Secretariat sets out seven partnerships established between the Convention and businesses under the BES.

[1]ICCD / COP (14) / 14 - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Note by the secretariat. Read more…

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